Arther Koestler coined the word "holon". It means "whole" in Greek. He then built a theory around this concept.
He observed that nature is architected with a series of parts that were both whole unto themselves and part of a larger whole.
For instance, a hydrogen atom is whole unto itself. One electron flying through a field around a nucleus. But that atom then can become with another hydrogen atom and and oxygen atom, a water molecule. And that water then becomes part of a cellular structure, and that cellular structure then is a part of more advanced forms of life, each being a whole unto themselves.
He calls a holonic structure a "holarchy".
Ones that can reach from subatomic particles to multiverses.
Holons are formed when they hold a series of smaller holons that have formed a relationship pattern that is self-sustaining and resilient. They then go on to form relationship patterns with other holons to form larger wholes larger than themselves. A holon exists in a dynamic tension between its sub-patterns and its meta-patterns forming complex self-regenerative systems. Autopoietic systems.
If any part of the system breaks down and no longer supports the behavior of other parts of the system, the entire system breaks down. Cancer is an example of a systems destructive dysfunction.
Holonic patterns lie at the heart of complex system theory and are essential for us to understand the nature of Pattern Languages.
It also was at the root of Alan Kay's design for Smalltalk, the software language that laid the foundation for object oriented programming.
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